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Hempseed protein-derived short- and medium-chain peptides and their multifunctional properties

Nowadays, the growing knowledge about the high nutritional value and potential functionality of hempseeds, the edible fruits of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, has sparked a surge in interest in exploring the worthwhile attributes of hempseed proteins and peptides. This trend aligns with the increasing popularity of hemp-based food, assuming a vital role in the global food chain. This chapter targets the nutritional and chemical composition of hempseed in terms of short- and medium-chain bioactive…

Adv Food Nutr Res. 2024;110:275-325. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2024.01.002. Epub 2024 Mar 22.

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, the growing knowledge about the high nutritional value and potential functionality of hempseeds, the edible fruits of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, has sparked a surge in interest in exploring the worthwhile attributes of hempseed proteins and peptides. This trend aligns with the increasing popularity of hemp-based food, assuming a vital role in the global food chain. This chapter targets the nutritional and chemical composition of hempseed in terms of short- and medium-chain bioactive peptides. The analytical approaches for their characterization and multifunctional properties are summarized in detail. Moreover, the processing, functionality, and application of various hempseed protein products are discussed. In the final part of the chapter-for evaluating their propensity to be transported by intestinal cells-the transepithelial transport of peptides within hempseed protein hydrolysate is highlighted.

PMID:38906589 | DOI:10.1016/bs.afnr.2024.01.002

Computational Screening for the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Peptides from Putative Hemp Seed Hydrolyzed Peptidome as a Potential Antidiabetic Agent

Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) inhibitory peptides are a class of antihyperglycemic drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder resulting from reduced levels of the incretin hormone GLP-1. Given that DPPIV degrades incretin, a key regulator of blood sugar levels, various antidiabetic medications that inhibit DPPIV, such as vildagliptin, sitagliptin, and linagliptin, are employed. However, the potential side effects of these drugs remain a matter of debate….

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 May 24;25(11):5730. doi: 10.3390/ijms25115730.

ABSTRACT

Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) inhibitory peptides are a class of antihyperglycemic drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder resulting from reduced levels of the incretin hormone GLP-1. Given that DPPIV degrades incretin, a key regulator of blood sugar levels, various antidiabetic medications that inhibit DPPIV, such as vildagliptin, sitagliptin, and linagliptin, are employed. However, the potential side effects of these drugs remain a matter of debate. Therefore, we aimed to investigate food-derived peptides from Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds. Our developed bioinformatics pipeline was used to identify the putative hydrolyzed peptidome of three highly abundant proteins: albumin, edestin, and vicilin. These proteins were subjected to in silico digestion by different proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin) and then screened for DPPIV inhibitory peptides using IDPPIV-SCM. To assess potential adverse effects, several prediction tools, namely, TOXINpred, AllerCatPro, and HemoPred, were employed to evaluate toxicity, allergenicity, and hemolytic effects, respectively. COPID was used to determine the amino acid composition. Molecular docking was performed using GalaxyPepDock and HPEPDOCK, 3D visualizations were conducted using the UCSF Chimera program, and MD simulations were carried out with AMBER20 MD software. Based on the predictive outcomes, FNVDTE from edestin and EAQPST from vicilin emerged as promising candidates for DPPIV inhibitors. We anticipate that our findings may pave the way for the development of alternative DPPIV inhibitors.

PMID:38891918 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25115730

Cannabis sativa (Hemp) seed-derived peptides WVYY and PSLPA modulate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in human keratinocytes

Cannabis sativa (Hemp) seeds are used widely for cosmetic and therapeutic applications, and contain peptides with substantial therapeutic potential. Two key peptides, WVYY and PSLPA, extracted from hemp seed proteins were the focal points of this study. These peptides have emerged as pivotal contributors to the various biological effects of hemp seed extracts. Consistently, in the present study, the biological effects of WVYY and PSLPA were explored. We confirmed that both WVYY and PSLPA exert…

PLoS One. 2024 May 23;19(5):e0298487. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0298487. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa (Hemp) seeds are used widely for cosmetic and therapeutic applications, and contain peptides with substantial therapeutic potential. Two key peptides, WVYY and PSLPA, extracted from hemp seed proteins were the focal points of this study. These peptides have emerged as pivotal contributors to the various biological effects of hemp seed extracts. Consistently, in the present study, the biological effects of WVYY and PSLPA were explored. We confirmed that both WVYY and PSLPA exert antioxidant and antibacterial effects and promote wound healing. We hypothesized the involvement of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in these observed effects, given that Nrf2 is reported to be a central player in the regulation of these observed effects. Molecular-level investigations unequivocally confirmed the role of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in the observed effects of WVYY and PSLPA, specifically their antioxidant effects. Our study highlights the therapeutic potential of hemp seed-derived peptides WVYY and PSLPA, particularly with respect to their antioxidant effects, and provides a nuanced understanding of their effects. Further, our findings can facilitate the investigation of targeted therapeutic applications and also underscore the broader significance of hemp extracts in biological contexts.

PMID:38781174 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0298487

Extraction, structural characteristics and antioxidant activity of hemp seeds glycoprotein

Abstract
The extraction process of hemp seeds glycoprotein (HGP) was optimized by using response surface methodology based on the single-factor experiments, and the structure characteristic and antioxidant activity of HGP were evaluated. The optimum conditions were extracting temperature of 58.54 °C, material–liquid ratio of 1:22.21 and ultrasonic power of 344.53 W. The molecular weight of HGP was identified by SDS-PAGE to be about 35 kDa. The FT-IR results demonstrated the presence of uronic acid and pyranose in the HGP structure. UV spectral scanning results confirmed the presence of a polypeptide skeleton structure and aromatic amino acids in HGP. TGA analysis revealed two weight loss intervals for HGP, with a thermal degradation temperature of 341.6 °C. Moreover, HGP demonstrated good antioxidant activity in vitro, with IC50 values of all antioxidant indexes below 0.5 mg/mL. These findings provide a basis for in-depth exploration of functional characteristics of hemp seeds glycoprotein.

Abstract

The extraction process of hemp seeds glycoprotein (HGP) was optimized by using response surface methodology based on the single-factor experiments, and the structure characteristic and antioxidant activity of HGP were evaluated. The optimum conditions were extracting temperature of 58.54 °C, material–liquid ratio of 1:22.21 and ultrasonic power of 344.53 W. The molecular weight of HGP was identified by SDS-PAGE to be about 35 kDa. The FT-IR results demonstrated the presence of uronic acid and pyranose in the HGP structure. UV spectral scanning results confirmed the presence of a polypeptide skeleton structure and aromatic amino acids in HGP. TGA analysis revealed two weight loss intervals for HGP, with a thermal degradation temperature of 341.6 °C. Moreover, HGP demonstrated good antioxidant activity in vitro, with IC50 values of all antioxidant indexes below 0.5 mg/mL. These findings provide a basis for in-depth exploration of functional characteristics of hemp seeds glycoprotein.

Advanced fabrication of complex biopolymer microcapsules via RSM-optimized supercritical carbon dioxide solution-enhanced dispersion: A comparative analysis of various microencapsulation techniques

This work aimed to enhance hemp seed oil encapsulation within a hemp seed protein-alginate complex by optimizing parameters in the solution-enhanced dispersion process, employing supercritical carbon dioxide (SEDS) without reliance on organic solvents or elevated temperatures. By response surface methodology (RSM), the microencapsulation efficacy (MEE), particle size (PS) and peroxide value (PV) was determined with respect to three parameters; temperature (°C), pressure (bar) and feed flow rate…

Food Chem. 2024 May 8;452:139591. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2024.139591. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

This work aimed to enhance hemp seed oil encapsulation within a hemp seed protein-alginate complex by optimizing parameters in the solution-enhanced dispersion process, employing supercritical carbon dioxide (SEDS) without reliance on organic solvents or elevated temperatures. By response surface methodology (RSM), the microencapsulation efficacy (MEE), particle size (PS) and peroxide value (PV) was determined with respect to three parameters; temperature (°C), pressure (bar) and feed flow rate (mL/min). The optimum conditions were predicted at temperature (40 °C), pressure (150 bar) and feed flow rate (2 mL/min) to offer an MEE of 89.47%, PS of 7.81 μm and PV of 2.91 (meq/kg oil). In addition, the SEDS method was compared with spray- and freeze-drying for encapsulating hemp seed oil. The findings demonstrated SEDS’ superiority, exhibiting exceptional attributes such as the highest MEE, smallest PS and the production of spherical, smooth microcapsules. This highlights its effectiveness in comparison to spray- and freeze-drying methods.

PMID:38761631 | DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2024.139591

Effectiveness of different antioxidants in suppressing the evolution of thermally induced peroxidation products in hemp seed oil

Publication date: July 2024Source: Food Research International, Volume 188Author(s): Gilbert Ampem, Adam Le Gresley, Martin Grootveld, Declan Patrick Naughton

Publication date: July 2024

Source: Food Research International, Volume 188

Author(s): Gilbert Ampem, Adam Le Gresley, Martin Grootveld, Declan Patrick Naughton

Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.) as a Valuable Source of Natural Ingredients for Functional Foods-A Review

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has experienced a significant resurgence in popularity, and global interest in diversifying its use in various industries, including the food industry, is growing. Therefore, due to their exceptional nutritional value, hemp seeds have recently gained increasing interest as a valuable ingredient for obtaining high-quality foods and dietary supplements. Hemp seeds stand out for their remarkable content of quality proteins, including edestin and albumin, two distinct types…

Molecules. 2024 May 1;29(9):2097. doi: 10.3390/molecules29092097.

ABSTRACT

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has experienced a significant resurgence in popularity, and global interest in diversifying its use in various industries, including the food industry, is growing. Therefore, due to their exceptional nutritional value, hemp seeds have recently gained increasing interest as a valuable ingredient for obtaining high-quality foods and dietary supplements. Hemp seeds stand out for their remarkable content of quality proteins, including edestin and albumin, two distinct types of proteins that contribute to exceptional nutritional value. Hemp seeds are also rich in healthy lipids with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid (omega-6), alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3), and some vitamins (vitamins E, D, and A). Polyphenols and terpenoids, in particular, present in hemp seeds, provide antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. This review examines the scientific literature regarding hemp seeds’ physicochemical and nutritional characteristics. The focus is on those characteristics that allow for their use in the food industry, aiming to transform ordinary food products into functional foods, offering additional benefits for the body’s health. Innovating opportunities to develop healthy, nutritionally superior food products are explored by integrating hemp seeds into food processes, promoting a balanced and sustainable diet.

PMID:38731588 | DOI:10.3390/molecules29092097

Analysis of phytocannabinoids in hemp seeds, sprouts and microgreens

Hemp-sprouts are emerging as a new class of attractive functional food due to their numerous health benefits when compared to other sprout species. Indeed, the high content of beneficial components including polyphenols and flavonoids makes this type of food a promising and successful market. However, the available literature on this topic is limited and often conflicting as regards to the content of phytocannabinoids. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass…

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2024 Apr 26;245:116181. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2024.116181. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Hemp-sprouts are emerging as a new class of attractive functional food due to their numerous health benefits when compared to other sprout species. Indeed, the high content of beneficial components including polyphenols and flavonoids makes this type of food a promising and successful market. However, the available literature on this topic is limited and often conflicting as regards to the content of phytocannabinoids. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) was applied in an untargeted metabolomics fashion to extracts of hemp seeds, sprouts and microgreens of nine different genotypes. Both unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistical analysis was performed to reveal variety-specific profiles of phytocannabinoids with surprisingly remarkable levels of phytocannabinoids even in chemotype V samples. Furthermore, a targeted HPLC-HRMS analysis was carried out for the quantitative determination of the major phytocannabinoids including CBDA, CBD, CBGA, CBG, CBCA, CBC, THCA, and trans-Δ9-THC. The last part of the study was focused on the evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of CBCA in hemp seeds, sprouts and microgreens in the different varieties by HPLC-CD (HPLC with online circular dichroism). Chiral analysis of CBCA showed a wide variability of its enantiomeric composition in the different varieties, thus contributing to the understanding of the intriguing stereochemical behavior of this compound in an early growth stage. However, further investigation is needed to determine the genetic factors responsible for the low enantiopurity of this compound.

PMID:38723555 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2024.116181

Integrated Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analysis Reveal the Dynamic Process of Bama Hemp Seed Development and the Accumulation Mechanism of alpha-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid

Bama County is a world-famous longevity county in the Guangxi Province, China. Bama hemp is a traditional seed used in hemp cultivation in the Bama County. The seeds contain abundant unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid in the golden ratio. These two substances have been proven to be related to human health and the prevention of various diseases. However, the seed development and seed oil accumulation mechanisms remain unclear. This study employed a…

J Agric Food Chem. 2024 May 7. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.3c09309. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Bama County is a world-famous longevity county in the Guangxi Province, China. Bama hemp is a traditional seed used in hemp cultivation in the Bama County. The seeds contain abundant unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid in the golden ratio. These two substances have been proven to be related to human health and the prevention of various diseases. However, the seed development and seed oil accumulation mechanisms remain unclear. This study employed a combined analysis of physiological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic parameters to elucidate the fatty acid formation patterns in Bama hemp seeds throughout development. We found that seed oil accumulated at a late stage in embryo development, with seed oil accumulation following an “S″-shaped growth curve, and positively correlated with seed size, sugar content, protein content, and starch content. Transcriptome analysis identified genes related to the metabolism of LA, α-linolenic acid (ALA), and jasmonic acid (JA). We found that the FAD2 gene was upregulated 165.26 folds and the FAD3 gene was downregulated 6.15 folds at day 21. Metabolomic changes in LA, ALA, and JA compounds suggested a competitive relationship among these substances. Our findings indicate that the peak period of substance accumulation and nutrient accumulation in Bama hemp seeds occurs during the midstage of seed development (day 21) rather than in the late stage (day 40). The results of this research will provide a theoretical basis for local cultivation and deep processing of Bama hemp.

PMID:38712687 | DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.3c09309

Hemp seed protein and its hydrolysate compared with casein protein consumption in adults with hypertension: a double-blind crossover study

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hemp protein consumption, as well as in combination with bioactive peptides, may have a role in the dietary management of hypertension. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03508895.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2024 May 4:S0002-9165(24)00462-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajcnut.2024.05.001. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of consuming hemp seed protein (HSP) as well as its hydrolysate-derived bioactive peptide (HSP+) on blood pressure (BP) has not, to our knowledge, been investigated in humans.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate how consumption of HSP and its hydrolysate modulates 24-h systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) and plasma biomarkers of BP compared with casein.

METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, crossover design trial, 35 adults who had mild hypertension with SBP between 130 and 160 mmHg and DBP ≤110 mmHg were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to varying sequences of 3 6-wk treatments, 50 g casein/d, 50 g HSP/d, or 45 g HSP plus 5 g HSP-derived bioactive peptides/d (HSP+), separated by a 2-wk washout period. Treatment effects were assessed with a linear mixed model with repeated measures.

RESULTS: Compared with casein, after HSP+ consumption, 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP decreased from 135.1 and 80.0 mmHg to 128.1 ± 1.6 (P < 0.0001) and 76.0 ± 1.4 mmHg (P < 0.0001), respectively, whereas these values were 133.5 ± 1.6 and 78.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after HSP consumption (P < 0.0001). There were no differences between the HSP and HSP+ consumption in plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, renin, or nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. However, these 2 treatments were able to lower both ACE and renin activities and raise NO concentration in plasma compared with casein.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hemp protein consumption, as well as in combination with bioactive peptides, may have a role in the dietary management of hypertension. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03508895.

PMID:38710445 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajcnut.2024.05.001

Hemp seed protein and its hydrolysate vs. casein protein consumption in adults with hypertension: a double-blind crossover study

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hemp protein consumption, as well as in combination with bioactive peptides, may have a role in the dietary management of hypertension. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03508895.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2024 May 4:S0002-9165(24)00462-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajcnut.2024.05.001. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of consuming hemp seed protein (HSP) as well as its hydrolysate-derived bioactive peptide (HSP+) on blood pressure (BP) has not to our knowledge been investigated in humans.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate how consumption of HSP and its hydrolysate modulates 24-hr systolic and diastolic BP (24-hrSBP and 24-hrDBP) and plasma biomarkers of BP compared to casein.

DESIGN: In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design trial, 35 adults who had mild hypertension with SBP between 130 and 160 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), and DBP ≤110 mmHg were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to varying sequences of three 6-week treatments, 50 g/d of casein, HSP, and HSP, 45 g/d plus HSP derived bioactive peptides (HSP+), 5 g/d separated by 2-week washout period. Treatment effects were assessed by linear mixed model with repeated measures.

RESULTS: Compared with casein, after HSP+ consumption, 24hrSBP and 24hrDBP decreased from 135.1 and 80.0 mmHg to 128.1 ± 1.6 (P<.0001) and 76.0 ± 1.4 mmHg (P<.0001) respectively whereas these values were 133.5 ± 1.6 and 78.9 ± 1.4 after HSP consumption (P<.0001). There were no differences between the HSP and HSP+ consumption in plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, renin or Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. However, these two treatments were able to lower both ACE and renin activities and raise NO concentration in plasma compared with casein.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hemp protein consumption, as well as in combination with bioactive peptides, may have a role in the dietary management of hypertension. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03508895.

PMID:38710445 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajcnut.2024.05.001

Impact of non‐thermal processing on the nutritional quality and bioactive properties of Industrial hempseed flours and protein isolate

Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, EarlyView.

Impact of non-thermal processing on the nutritional quality and bioactive properties of Industrial hempseed flours and protein isolate

Experimental design for non-thermal processing of hempseedand characterization of the nutritional quality and bioactive properties of generated flours and protein isolate.

Abstract

There is an unmet demand for plant-based ingredients with desirable nutritional, techno-functional properties, and health benefits. In this study, the composition, nutritional quality, and bioactives in industrial hempseed flours and protein isolate generated by milling, germination, isoelectric precipitation (IEP), and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) were evaluated. Moisture, ash, fat, protein, phytic acid, tannin, and trypsin inhibitor content of the hempseed flours and protein isolate were 2.80%–6.46%, 5.07%–28.89%, 0.00%–31.44%, 22.71%–89.94%, 0.55%–1.05%, 274.24–1300.76 μg/g, and 0.00–42.66 U/g, respectively. IEP resulted in the highest protein content (89.94%), indicative of its effective to isolate hempseed protein. Germination and IEP significantly reduced phytic acid and tannin contents by 1.53- and 3.63-fold, respectively. All processing methods improved in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed comparable band patterns in milled and protein isolate, with a strong 50 kDa band attributed as edestin. Amino acid analysis showed that EAE augmented total essential amino acids, particularly protease. Milling and pronase treatment yielded the highest and lowest IVPD-corrected amino acid score (IVPDCAAS) of 76% and 47%, respectively. Milled and germinated flours contained varying amounts of γ-tocopherol, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene. Germinated flour exhibited elevated levels of total phenolic (14.36 mg/g), and flavonoid (1.76 mg/g) contents, FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH compared to the other flours suggesting superior antioxidant capacity. Strong positive correlations (r >0.70) were found between IVPD and phytic acid for the protein isolate, total phenolic content, and FRAP for IEP and germinated flours. Overall, hempseed flours with diverse properties could be produced using non-thermal processing.

Bacterial endophytic community composition varies by hemp cultivar in commercially sourced seed

The seed-endophytic bacterial community is a potentially beneficial and heritable fraction of the plant microbiome. Its utilization as a sustainable crop improvement strategy could be especially valuable for species such as hemp, where production is being scaled up and new challenges will be faced in managing crop productivity and health. However, little is known about the makeup and variation of the hemp seed microbiome. This study profiled the endophytic bacterial communities harboured by 16…

Environ Microbiol Rep. 2024 Apr;16(2):e13259. doi: 10.1111/1758-2229.13259.

ABSTRACT

The seed-endophytic bacterial community is a potentially beneficial and heritable fraction of the plant microbiome. Its utilization as a sustainable crop improvement strategy could be especially valuable for species such as hemp, where production is being scaled up and new challenges will be faced in managing crop productivity and health. However, little is known about the makeup and variation of the hemp seed microbiome. This study profiled the endophytic bacterial communities harboured by 16 hemp cultivars sourced from commercial suppliers in Europe. A 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing approach identified 917 amplicon sequence variants across samples. Taxonomic classification of sequences revealed 4 phyla and 87 genera to be represented in the dataset. Several genera were widespread while some were specific to one or a few cultivars. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Pantoea were notable in their high overall abundance and prevalence, but community composition was variable and no one taxon was universally abundant, suggesting a high degree of flexibility in community assembly. Taxonomic composition and alpha diversity differed among cultivars, though further work is required to understand the relative influence of hemp genetic factors on community structure. The taxonomic profiles presented here can be used to inform further work investigating the functional characteristics and potential plant-growth-promoting traits of seed-borne bacteria in hemp.

PMID:38649235 | PMC:PMC11035101 | DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.13259

Hemp seeds attenuate loperamide-induced constipation in mice

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal disease that seriously affects human physical and mental health. Studies have reported that hemp seeds can improve constipation, however the specific mechanism is still unclear. This study investigates that hemp seed (HS) and its water-ethanol extract (HSE) attenuates loperamide-induced constipation in mice. The research results show that: the fecal water content and small intestinal transit rate of mice in the hemp seed group and hemp seed…

Front Microbiol. 2024 Apr 4;15:1353015. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2024.1353015. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal disease that seriously affects human physical and mental health. Studies have reported that hemp seeds can improve constipation, however the specific mechanism is still unclear. This study investigates that hemp seed (HS) and its water-ethanol extract (HSE) attenuates loperamide-induced constipation in mice. The research results show that: the fecal water content and small intestinal transit rate of mice in the hemp seed group and hemp seed hydroalcoholic extract group were significantly increased compared with MC group, and the first red feces defecation time was significantly shortened; HS and HSE significantly influence serum levels of Gastrin (Gas), motilin (MTL), substance P (SP), and endothelin (ET), potentially mediating their effects on gastrointestinal motility. HS and HSE can improve colon inflammation in constipated mice with H&E staining. Compared with the model of constipation group, the content of short-chain fatty acids in the HS group and HSE group increased significantly. Gut microbiome studies have shown that the structure and abundance of intestinal flora are altered. HS and HSE changed the abundance of Odoribacter, Bacteroide, Lactobacillus and Prevotella. Together, these results suggest that HS have the potential to stimulate the proliferation of beneficial gut microbes and promote intestinal motility, thereby improving gut health and relieving symptoms of constipation.

PMID:38638898 | PMC:PMC11024439 | DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2024.1353015

Hemp Seed Oil Inhibits the Adipogenicity of the Differentiation-Induced Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells through Suppressing the Cannabinoid Type 1 (CB1)

Central and peripheral mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) favor energy intake and storage. The ECS, especially cannabidiol (CBD) receptors, controls adipocyte differentiation (hyperplasia) and lipid accumulation (hypertrophy) in adipose tissue. In white adipose tissue, cannabidiol receptor 1 (CB1) stimulation increases lipogenesis and inhibits lipolysis; in brown adipose tissue, it decreases mitochondrial thermogenesis and biogenesis. This study compared the availability of…

Molecules. 2024 Mar 31;29(7):1568. doi: 10.3390/molecules29071568.

ABSTRACT

Central and peripheral mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) favor energy intake and storage. The ECS, especially cannabidiol (CBD) receptors, controls adipocyte differentiation (hyperplasia) and lipid accumulation (hypertrophy) in adipose tissue. In white adipose tissue, cannabidiol receptor 1 (CB1) stimulation increases lipogenesis and inhibits lipolysis; in brown adipose tissue, it decreases mitochondrial thermogenesis and biogenesis. This study compared the availability of phytocannabinoids [CBD and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] and polyunsaturated fatty acids [omega 3 (ω3) and omega 6 (ω6)] in different hemp seed oils (HSO). The study also examined the effect of HSO on adipocyte lipid accumulation by suppressing cannabinoid receptors in adipogenesis-stimulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Most importantly, Oil-Red-O’ and Nile red tests showed that HSO induced adipogenic hMSC differentiation without differentiation agents. Additionally, HSO-treated cells showed increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression compared to controls (hMSC). HSO reduced PPARγ mRNA expression after differentiation media (DM) treatment. After treatment with HSO, DM-hMSCs had significantly lower CB1 mRNA and protein expressions than normal hMSCs. HSO treatment also decreased transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) mRNAs in hMSC and DM-hMSCs. HSO treatment significantly decreased CB1, CB2, TRPV1, and G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPCR55) protein levels in DM-hMSC compared to hMSC in western blot analysis. In this study, HSO initiated adipogenic differentiation in hMSC without DM, but it suppressed CB1 gene and protein expression, potentially decreasing adipocyte lipid accumulation and lipogenic enzymes.

PMID:38611847 | DOI:10.3390/molecules29071568

Quantification of sixteen cannabinoids in hemp seed edible oils and the influence of thermal processing on cannabinoid contents and profiles

To investigate cannabinoid content and profiles, 16 cannabinoids were quantified in 30 commercial hemp seed edible oils. In addition, one hemp seed oil was subjected to thermal processing up to 200 °C for up to 60 min. UHPLC-MS/MS was used for analysis. The content of cannabinoids in the samples ranged from 9 to 279 mg kg^(-1) (sum) and for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) from 0.2 to 6.7 mg kg^(-1). Three samples exceeded the EU Δ9-THC equivalent maximum levels of 7.5 mg kg^(-1) for hemp seed…

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2024 Apr 8:1-13. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2024.2319270. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

To investigate cannabinoid content and profiles, 16 cannabinoids were quantified in 30 commercial hemp seed edible oils. In addition, one hemp seed oil was subjected to thermal processing up to 200 °C for up to 60 min. UHPLC-MS/MS was used for analysis. The content of cannabinoids in the samples ranged from 9 to 279 mg kg-1 (sum) and for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) from 0.2 to 6.7 mg kg-1. Three samples exceeded the EU Δ9-THC equivalent maximum levels of 7.5 mg kg-1 for hemp seed oils. Cannabinoid profiles can provide indications of different product characteristics (e.g. degree of processing, variety of plant material). Furthermore, intense thermal processing (200 °C, 60 min) led to 38% decrease in sum cannabinoid content (sum of all analysed cannabinoids in this study), 99% decrease in cannabinoid acids, and 22% increase in Δ9-THC.

PMID:38588664 | DOI:10.1080/19440049.2024.2319270

An in-depth comparative study of various plant-based protein-alginate complexes in the production of hemp seed oil microcapsules by supercritical carbon dioxide solution-enhanced dispersion

Publication date: August 2024Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 153Author(s): Somayeh Gholivand, Tai Boon Tan, Masni Mat Yusoff, Hew Weng Choy, Shuh Jun Teow, Yong Wang, Yuanfa Liu, Chin Ping Tan

Food Hydrocolloids

Publication date: August 2024

Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 153

Author(s): Somayeh Gholivand, Tai Boon Tan, Masni Mat Yusoff, Hew Weng Choy, Shuh Jun Teow, Yong Wang, Yuanfa Liu, Chin Ping Tan

Investigation of the Effect of Different Seed Flours on Gluten-Free Products: Baton Cake Production, Characterization, and TOPSIS Application

The present study aims to develop gluten-free product formulations by using different seed flours to determine their effectiveness in gluten-free products. For this purpose, a baton cake model was selected; the cake production process was conducted by adding hemp, okra, mustard, or coriander seed flours with rice flour at a ratio of 25% seed flour to 75% rice flour to prepare the cake batters. The physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties, as well as the baking behaviors of the resulting…

Foods. 2024 Mar 21;13(6):964. doi: 10.3390/foods13060964.

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to develop gluten-free product formulations by using different seed flours to determine their effectiveness in gluten-free products. For this purpose, a baton cake model was selected; the cake production process was conducted by adding hemp, okra, mustard, or coriander seed flours with rice flour at a ratio of 25% seed flour to 75% rice flour to prepare the cake batters. The physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties, as well as the baking behaviors of the resulting products, were determined. The TOPSIS method was used in the sensory analyses. With the addition of seed flours, a color change occurred in the inner and crust values of the baton cake samples. It was observed that the hardness value of the baton cake samples increased with the addition of seed flour. In the TOPSIS evaluation, which is a multi-criteria decision-making method, the most preferred product in the free baton cake samples was the cake with hemp seed flour added, while the least preferred product was the control group baton cake. According to the findings, it was concluded that the use of seed flours can be used as an alternative ingredient in the production of gluten-free baton cakes that celiac patients can consume in their diets.

PMID:38540954 | DOI:10.3390/foods13060964

Seed preference is only weakly linked to seed-type-specific feeding performance in a songbird

The dehusking of seeds by granivorous songbirds is a complex process that requires fast, coordinated and sensory-feedback-controlled movements of beak and tongue. Hence, efficient seed handling requires a high degree of sensorimotoric skill and behavioural flexibility, since seeds vary considerably in size, shape and husk structure. To deal with this variability, individuals might specialise on specific seed types, which could result in greater seed handling efficiency of the preferred seed…

Biol Open. 2024 Mar 22:bio.060353. doi: 10.1242/bio.060353. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The dehusking of seeds by granivorous songbirds is a complex process that requires fast, coordinated and sensory-feedback-controlled movements of beak and tongue. Hence, efficient seed handling requires a high degree of sensorimotoric skill and behavioural flexibility, since seeds vary considerably in size, shape and husk structure. To deal with this variability, individuals might specialise on specific seed types, which could result in greater seed handling efficiency of the preferred seed type, but lower efficiency for other seed types. To test this, we assessed seed preferences of canaries (Serinus canaria) through food choice experiments and related these to data of feeding performance, seed handling skills and beak kinematics during feeding on small, spindle-shaped canary seeds and larger, spheroid-shaped hemp seeds. We found great variety in seed preferences among individuals: some had no clear preference, while others almost exclusively fed on hemp seeds, or even prioritized novel seed types (millet seed). Surprisingly, we only observed few and weak effects of seed preference on feeding efficiency. This suggests that either the ability to handle seeds efficiently can be readily applied across various seed types, or alternatively, it may indicate that achieving high levels of seed-specific handling skills does not require extensive practice.

PMID:38526169 | DOI:10.1242/bio.060353

Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Hemp Seeds Alone or with Dried Fruit Pomace on Laying Hens' Performance and on Lipid Composition and Oxidation Status of Egg Yolks

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of introducing hemp seeds, as a source of PUFAs, into a standard diet with or without dried fruit pomace (dried blackcurrant (DB) or dried rosehip (DR)), as a source of natural antioxidants, on the laying performance of hens and the FA profile, cholesterol level, antioxidant content, and lipid oxidative status in the yolks of fresh eggs or eggs stored at 4 °C for 28 days. The experiment used 128 Tetra SL hens at 35 weeks of age, which…

Animals (Basel). 2024 Feb 28;14(5):750. doi: 10.3390/ani14050750.

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of introducing hemp seeds, as a source of PUFAs, into a standard diet with or without dried fruit pomace (dried blackcurrant (DB) or dried rosehip (DR)), as a source of natural antioxidants, on the laying performance of hens and the FA profile, cholesterol level, antioxidant content, and lipid oxidative status in the yolks of fresh eggs or eggs stored at 4 °C for 28 days. The experiment used 128 Tetra SL hens at 35 weeks of age, which were divided into four groups and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: a standard corn-wheat-soybean meal diet (C), standard diet containing 8% ground hemp seed (H), hemp seed diet containing 3% dried blackcurrant pomace (HB), and hemp seed diet containing 3% dried rosehip pomace (HR). The laying rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight, and yolk weight were improved by the use of hemp seeds. The yolks of the H, HB, and HR eggs had a lower cholesterol (p ˂ 0.01) and SFA content, while the concentration of total and individual PUFAs (n-6 and n-3 FAs) was significantly higher (p ˂ 0.01) compared to C. In addition, the introduction of hemp seeds into the diets alone or with dried fruit pomace (DB or DR) led to increased (p ˂ 0.001) content of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and hypo-/hypercholesterolemic FA ratio and decreased arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) content, n-6/n-3 ratio, and thrombogenicity index (TI) compared to the control eggs. The introduction of dried fruit pomace (DB or DR) into the diets had no effect on the laying performance of the hens or the cholesterol content and FA profile of the egg yolks, compared to the diet supplemented only with hemp seeds. The dried fruit pomace improved the color, accumulation of antioxidants, and oxidative stability of fats in the yolks of the fresh eggs and eggs stored at 4 °C for 28 days. The DR was found to have the most desirable effects, producing the most intense color of egg yolks, the highest content of natural antioxidants, and the best oxidative stability of yolk lipids.

PMID:38473135 | DOI:10.3390/ani14050750

Chemosensory of hemp seed oil extracted with hemp seed(Cannabis sativa L.) roasted under various conditions using electronic sensors and GC-MS/Olfactometry

This study analyzed the flavor of six types of hemp seed oil (HSO) extracted with roasted hemp seed (RHS) under various conditions (Raw, 140 °C_9 min, 140 °C_12 min, 160 °C_12 min, 180 °C_6 min). Electronic tongue (E-tongue), electronic nose (E-nose), GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and GC-O (gas chromatography-olfactometry) were used for HSO flavor analysis. As a result of the E-tongue analysis, the sweetness tends to increase in most samples as roasting. A total of 89 and 77…

Food Chem X. 2024 Feb 16;21:101226. doi: 10.1016/j.fochx.2024.101226. eCollection 2024 Mar 30.

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the flavor of six types of hemp seed oil (HSO) extracted with roasted hemp seed (RHS) under various conditions (Raw, 140 °C_9 min, 140 °C_12 min, 160 °C_12 min, 180 °C_6 min). Electronic tongue (E-tongue), electronic nose (E-nose), GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and GC-O (gas chromatography-olfactometry) were used for HSO flavor analysis. As a result of the E-tongue analysis, the sweetness tends to increase in most samples as roasting. A total of 89 and 77 volatile compounds were detected through E-nose and GC-MS, and the main volatile compounds were identified as Maillard reaction products. A total of 16 odor active compounds were detected in the GC-O analysis, and in the case of 160 ℃_12 min and 180 ℃_6 min, the scent of Roasted hemp seed oil was more dominant than other aroma profiles. The results of this study are basic data on the flavor characteristics of HSO.

PMID:38420505 | PMC:PMC10900398 | DOI:10.1016/j.fochx.2024.101226

Investigation on the presence of mycotoxins in seed hemp varieties

In recent years, the cultivation of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in Europe has aroused interest among farmers for the potential market opportunities of its products; its cultivation has increased from 20,450 ha in 2015 to 33,020 ha in 2022. Thanks to the great versatility of this crop, there are opportunities in the food and nutraceutical fields (gluten free), cosmetics, energy and industrial sectors. As for several crops, hemp seeds may also be contaminated by fungal pathogens compromising its…

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2024 Feb 26:1-10. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2024.2311850. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the cultivation of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in Europe has aroused interest among farmers for the potential market opportunities of its products; its cultivation has increased from 20,450 ha in 2015 to 33,020 ha in 2022. Thanks to the great versatility of this crop, there are opportunities in the food and nutraceutical fields (gluten free), cosmetics, energy and industrial sectors. As for several crops, hemp seeds may also be contaminated by fungal pathogens compromising its quality and safety. Considering the recent interest of consumers in using hemp for food purposes, in the present work, a small survey on mycotoxin contamination was carried out during 2018-2022 in hemp seed samples cultivated in Italy for food use. The results showed a limited occurrence of the most common regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AFs], fumonisins [FBs], ochratoxin A [OTA], deoxynivalenol [DON] and zearalenone), but very high levels of alternariols, reaching a maximum value of 24.4, 308, 226 and 288 µg/kg for tenuazonic acid [TeA], tentoxin [TEN], alternariol [AOH] and alternariol monoether, respectively. In the same period, an investigation carried out in an experimental field showed that fungal contamination and mycotoxin occurrence were influenced by different meteorological conditions and different varieties.

PMID:38408274 | DOI:10.1080/19440049.2024.2311850

Nutritionally Valuable Components and Heat-Induced Contaminants in Extruded Snack Products Enriched with Defatted Press Cakes

This research studies the influence of the addition of defatted press cakes (from the production of hazelnut, camelina, pumpkin, and hemp seed oil) on nutritionally important components: fibre, resistant starch, polyphenols, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acrylamide in directly and indirectly expanded snacks. The amounts of press cakes added to corn grits were 3, 6, and 9%. Extrusion was carried out in a laboratory single-screw extruder. For indirectly expanded products (SCFX), supercritical…

Molecules. 2024 Feb 8;29(4):791. doi: 10.3390/molecules29040791.

ABSTRACT

This research studies the influence of the addition of defatted press cakes (from the production of hazelnut, camelina, pumpkin, and hemp seed oil) on nutritionally important components: fibre, resistant starch, polyphenols, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acrylamide in directly and indirectly expanded snacks. The amounts of press cakes added to corn grits were 3, 6, and 9%. Extrusion was carried out in a laboratory single-screw extruder. For indirectly expanded products (SCFX), supercritical CO2 was injected during extrusion, and secondary expansion was completed in the microwave oven. The type and content of press cake, as well as the type of product, significantly influenced total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Press cakes increased the contents of both soluble and insoluble fibre (from 1.94% d. m. and 1.28% d. m. for extrudates without press cakes up to 3.17% d. m. and 6.94% d. m. for SCFX extrudates with press cakes, respectively), and resistant starch was not markedly influenced by their addition. The influence of the content of press cake on HMF was not significant, whereas the type of cake and the type of extrusion influenced HMF significantly. In a raw mixture of corn grits with 3% of pumpkin press cake, HMF was below the limit of detection, and the highest content was found in the classically extruded sample with the addition of 9% of camelina press cake (580 ppb). In all samples, the acrylamide content was below the limit of detection, indicating that safe products were obtained. This research shows potential for the implementation of supercritical CO2 extrusion in the production of safe, nutritionally improved snack products. Future research might bring about the design of cost-effective processes applicable in the industry.

PMID:38398542 | DOI:10.3390/molecules29040791

Physicochemical Characterisation of Seeds, Oil and Defatted Cake of Three Hempseed Varieties Cultivated in Spain

The increasing use of hempseed in food products highlights the need for a comprehensive database for scientific research and industrial applications. In food development, information about the techno-functional properties of raw materials plays a crucial role in determining the suitability of each product for specific applications. Thus, this study aims to characterise three hempseed varieties (Ferimon, Henola and Uso-31), comparing their physicochemical and nutritional compositions. Moreover,…

Foods. 2024 Feb 9;13(4):531. doi: 10.3390/foods13040531.

ABSTRACT

The increasing use of hempseed in food products highlights the need for a comprehensive database for scientific research and industrial applications. In food development, information about the techno-functional properties of raw materials plays a crucial role in determining the suitability of each product for specific applications. Thus, this study aims to characterise three hempseed varieties (Ferimon, Henola and Uso-31), comparing their physicochemical and nutritional compositions. Moreover, the study investigates the impact of hempseed varieties on the techno-functional, physical and thermal properties of the partially defatted hempseed flours (PDHFs) obtained from single screw pressing (SSP) oil extraction. The fatty acid and tocopherol profiles of the dehulled seeds and oil were also analysed. Significant variations in yield and physical properties were observed among hempseed varieties, influenced by genetics, adaptation to agro-climatic conditions and cultivation systems. Despite its lower yield (kg/ha), Uso-31 exhibited superior 1000-seed weight, dehulling yield and larger mean seed size (1.79 ± 0.02 mm). Hempseed oil was rich in unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic (51.2-53.4 g/100 g oil) and α-linolenic (14.88-18.97 g/100 oil) acids, showing variations in γ- and α-tocopherols depending on the variety. The variety also influenced the least gelation concentration (LGC) and techno-functional properties such as water absorption capacity (WAC), emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES). SDS-PAGE and DSC measurements indicated the presence of 11S and 7S globulin proteins with denaturation temperatures above 87.8 °C. These findings confirm that the studied hempseed flours are valuable techno-functional and nutritional ingredients suitable for sustainable food formulations.

PMID:38397508 | DOI:10.3390/foods13040531

Impact of Using Oilseed Industry Byproducts Rich in Linoleic and Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Ruminant Nutrition on Milk Production and Milk Fatty Acid Profile

Milk contains more than 400 different fatty acids, some of which play a positive role in promoting human health. The profile of fatty acids in milk can be enhanced by providing animals with plant-based resources that possess feeding characteristics adequate for favorable changes in the fatty acid composition and increasing healthy fatty acids in milk. This review summarizes the available 41 research studies on the utilization of oilseed industry byproducts rich in linoleic acid (hemp, pumpkin,…

Animals (Basel). 2024 Feb 6;14(4):539. doi: 10.3390/ani14040539.

ABSTRACT

Milk contains more than 400 different fatty acids, some of which play a positive role in promoting human health. The profile of fatty acids in milk can be enhanced by providing animals with plant-based resources that possess feeding characteristics adequate for favorable changes in the fatty acid composition and increasing healthy fatty acids in milk. This review summarizes the available 41 research studies on the utilization of oilseed industry byproducts rich in linoleic acid (hemp, pumpkin, sunflower) and alpha-linolenic acid (camelina and linseed) in dairy cow, sheep, and goat nutrition; their impact on milk production characteristics; and potential to improve fatty acid composition of milk through the diet. This review illustrates that incorporating byproducts into the diet for dairy ruminants generally does not have any adverse effects on both milk production and composition. A similar trend of improvement in milk fatty acid profile was observed when ruminants were fed diets supplemented with camelina, linseed, and sunflower byproducts, while no significant changes were noted with pumpkin byproducts. Hempseed byproducts showed potential for use as an alternative ingredient in dairy ruminant diets. Nevertheless, more in-depth research investigating the inclusion of selected byproducts is required before valid conclusions can be drawn regarding their value.

PMID:38396507 | DOI:10.3390/ani14040539